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Technique – 5 techniques de composition à connaître

Coucou tout le monde aujourd’hui je viens avec un article « Technique » qui servira aussi bien pour le dessin digitale que pour le dessin traditionnel.
Donc je vous invite à bien lire ce qui suit, car cela pourra vous être utile. Voici sans plus attendre les 5 techniques de composition à connaitre.

1. La règle de tiers.

Rassurez-vous il ne s’agit pas d’une règle bien compliquée, je dirais même que c’est l’une des plus simples à comprendre et l’une des plus essentielle à garder en tête lorsque vous souhaitez faire une composition. À mon sens elle est essentiel parce que c’est grâce à cette règle que vous allez dynamiser votre image et la rendre plus vivante et donc par extension plus intéressante à visionner.

Concrètement le schéma ci-dessous EST cette « règle » des tiers, le bleu correspond au bord de l’image (donc on s’en fiche, c’était surtout pour la lisibilité), les traits sont les tracés séparant notre image en trois tiers égaux (horizontalement et verticalement), quant aux points rouges, il s’agit des points de tension de l’image, donc pour faire court le but du jeu va être de mettre les points de focus de notre image à proximité d’un ou plusieurs de ces points.

Schéma Tiers
schéma des tiers

Je sais que cela peut sembler un peu flou dit comme ça, alors je vous montre ça de façon un peu plus concrète avec deux croquis que j’ai sous la main, j’ai numéroté les points de tensions afin de donner des indications plus facilement.

Exemples-Tiers
Exemples-Tiers

Ci-dessus, commencez par regarder les points de tension 2 et 4 vous vous apercevrez que le point 2 tombe sur la ville en haut de la falaise, quant au point 4 vous verrez que le personnage tombe non loin de là. Concernant les points 1 et 3, vous remarquerez que la montagne juste à côté de deux points de tension, elle est plutôt intéressante, voir pour le point 1 peut être avez-vous remarqué l’aigle qui vole et qui peut apporter une part de mystère (l’aigle chasse t-il? Indique t-il quelque chose ? Etc.).
Pour ce qui est de la seconde image maintenant, sur le point 8 vous pouvez remarquer que le cow-boy sur son cheval se trouve exactement sur le point de tension 8, ensuite sur les autres points il n’y a pas grand-chose de particulièrement intéressant, cependant il pourrait se passer des choses au niveau du point 5 et/ou 7.
A noter que sur ces 2 croquis, je n’ai absolument pas construit la grille des tiers, cependant à force de l’utiliser vous placerez vos éléments essentiels selon les tiers, de façon totalement naturelle.

2. Différents plans dans votre composition.

Oui ce deuxième point peut sembler tout à fait logique, mais ça ne fait pas de mal de le rappeler de temps en temps. En jouant sur différents plans, votre image va gagner en profondeur et donc une fois de plus en intérêt, pas besoins d’avoir 25 plans non plus, en général cela tourne autour de 3 ou 4. Je vous rappelle au passage que les plans les plus proches seront en général plus sombres (sauf lumière ajoutée artificiellement), et que les plans les plus éloignés seront plus clairs et moins détaillés.

Ci-dessous, le croquis de base à droite et à gauche le découpage plan par plan :

Plans découpé
découpage des plans

3. Les lignes directrices.

Qu’est-ce que les lignes directrices me direz-vous ? Purement et simplement des lignes qui vont guider votre œil vers un point voulu. Sachez qu’instinctivement votre œil aura tendance à suivre les lignes naturelles ou artificielles de votre image donc il serai dommage de s’en priver. Reprenons l’image précédente pour illustrer le propos :

lignes-directrices
Illustrations des lignes directrices

4. Excentrez un sujet.

Pourquoi excentrer votre sujet, encore une fois pour des raisons de dynamiques et faire vivre votre composition. En effet cela peut installer dans votre image, une part de mystère ou autre. Reprenez une fois de plus l’image précédente, le personnage regarde-t-il quelque chose? est-il songeur ? y a-t-il quelqu’un hors cadre ? Autant de question que peut se poser (inconsciemment ou non) le lecteur de votre image.

5. Composez grâce à des formes simples.

Amusez-vous à regarder des tableaux de grands peintres ou des affiches cultes comme celles de « Star Wars » de Drew Struzan par exemple.

Affiche Star Wars de Drew Struzan
Affiche de Drew Struzan + explication de compo

Sur l’affiche ci-dessus la composition en triangle renversé est bien visible.

Voici différentes formes simples de compositions et leurs significations:

  • Le carré : étant symétrique il instaure un climat de stabilité et de calme, cependant il sera souvent accompagné d’autres formes afin d’éviter un effet d’ennui.
  • le triangle ascendant : il nous donnera une impression d’équilibre et de calme voir dans certains contextes, de spiritualité.
  • le triangle descendant : il donnera généralement un effet d’insécurité, mais accélérera souvent le mouvement du regard.
  • le cercle : celui-ci symbolise l’infinité, l’harmonie et la douceur, il donne donc une impression d’équilibre qui peut s’avérer utile dans certains cas.
  • le rectangle vertical : exprime pour sa part la puissance, la grandeur, la force, il peut être utile pour dramatiser une scène ou une composition.
  • le rectangle horizontal : il exprime quant à lui le calme, le repos, la sérénité, mail il peut aussi symboliser une certaine lourdeur ou froideur.

Voilà c’est tout pour aujourd’hui, j’espère que cet article vous sera utile et vous permettra d’améliorer vos compositions. Comme d’habitude je vous invite à commenter ci-dessous.

About the author: Kevin Guegan

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