entete_Couleur

Technique – 4 notions à connaître pour la couleur

Coucou tout le monde, suite au précédent article technique disponible ici, j’ai reçu la demande suivante : faire un article avec pour thème la couleur.
Ce thème étant très vaste, l’article proposé aujourd’hui sera une sorte « d’introduction » à la couleur, mais je vous invite à vous pencher sur la « théorie de la couleur », qui sera beaucoup plus détaille et complète que le présent article.

Différences entre la « couleur » RGB et CMJN

Nous allons tout de suite voir la différence entre le CMJN (CMYK en anglais) et le RVB (RGB en anglais, par habitude on utilisera plus le terme anglais). Cette partie concerne surtout ceux qui travaillent sur ordinateur, mais il est toujours bien de connaître ces notions qui pourront toujours servir en cas de travaux à imprimer. Pour faire simple, le système RGB est le système de couleur dédier au numérique (écran de pc, tablette, smartphone, etc.), alors que quand à lui le CMJN concernera tout ce qui sera imprimé (cartes de visites, flyers, affiches ,etc…). En effet les réglages de votre document (notamment sur Photoshop et autres logiciels préférés) seront différents en fonction du SUPPORT VISÉ. Nous allons voir tout de suite les paramètres basiques en fonction du choix effectué.

  • Pour le RGB :
    • Vous serez amené à utiliser le RGB dans les cas suivant : Une image à destination d’internet (Réseaux sociaux, mails, bannière, etc.).
    • Ou bien encore des documents internes à votre pc, et qui n’auront pas pour but d’être imprimés (par exemple un wallpaper, des icones personnalisés, des assets de jeux, etc.).
    • Lorsque l’on paramétrera le document on laissera le DPI à 72, car au-delà il n’y aura pas d’amélioration visuelle, et cela rendra votre fichier plus volumineux.
  • Pour le CMJN :
    • On l’utilisera en cas de travaux à imprimer (book, flyers, papeterie, etc.)
    • On réglera le DPI à 300 (en dessous on risque d’avoir une qualité moins bonne à l’impression et au dessus, s’il s’agit d’un document complexe, le poids du fichier risque de vite s’envoler).

Pensez donc dès le départ à la destination de votre document, car même s’il est possible de changer le profil colorimétrique après coup, il se peut que les couleurs soit modifiées lors de ces changements.

Couleurs primaires, secondaires, tertiaires

Ne vous inquiétez pas, cela n’a rien de compliqué.

Tout d’abord les couleurs PRIMAIRES, il s’agit ni plus ni moins des 3 couleurs de base qui nous permettront de réaliser toutes vos autres couleurs à savoir, le rouge (en réalité plutôt un magenta), le jaune et le bleu (en réalité plutôt un Cyan).
Couleurs_primaires

Maintenant les couleurs SECONDAIRES, il s’agit des couleurs que l’on obtient en mélangeant à part égale deux couleurs primaires, le orange, le vert et le violet.
Couleurs_secondaires

Et donc pour finir les couleurs TERTIAIRES, comme vous vous en doutez il s’agit du mélange d’une couleur secondaire et d’une couleur primaire.
Couleurs_Tertiaires

Couleurs complémentaires

Les couleurs complémentaires, « qu’est ce que c’est? » vous allez me dire. C’est tout simplement une couleur, qui se situe totalement à l’opposé d’une autre, sur la roue chromatique et qui, si elle sont mélangées à part égale, produisent un gris neutre. Non non on ne parle pas chinois ici, regardez l’image ci-dessous cela sera beaucoup plus clair (chaque flèche indique une complémentaire).
Couleurs_Complémentaires

Alors concrètement quel est l’utilité d’une couleur complémentaire ? Eh bien à faire des ombres VIVANTES et qui n’écraseront pas vos images, bah oui, l’erreur de débutant la plus courante, c’est de mettre du noir dans ses ombres (cela est à éviter, sauf style spécifique), pourquoi cela? Tout simplement par ce que cela à tendance à écraser votre image et donc a tendance à la rendre moins attractive. Une des solutions consiste à utiliser la complémentaire (de façon réduite par rapport à la couleur de base. Par exemple utilisez du vert lorsque vous avez une couleur rouge) afin d’avoir une ombre plus profonde et intéressante. Si jamais vous avez du mal à déterminer quel est la complémentaire d’une couleur, une astuce consiste à la passer en négatif (Ctrl + I sur Photoshop par exemple).

Significations des Couleurs

Alors avant de vous laisser découvrir la signification des couleurs, je vous mets en garde, celles qui suivent sont valables en France, en effet dans d’autre pays, la signification des couleurs sera probablement différente (il peut y avoir des pays où elles serons similaires, mais pour d’autres pays je vous recommande de faire des recherches), sinon pour un descriptif plus détaillé, allez voir ici.

Significations_Couleurs

Voilà c’est tout pour aujourd’hui, j’espère que cet article vous sera utile et vous permettra d’améliorer vos travaux. Comme d’habitude je vous invite à commenter ci-dessous.

About the author: Kevin Guegan

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